# Rules for Calculating Determinants

In the article Definition
Determinants have explained how to calculate the matrix determinant for a
matrix of 2 x 2 and 3 x 3 using the Sarrus method. In this article we will show
how the determinant of a matrix can be calculated using cofactor expansion and
elementary row operations.

###
**Calculating Determinants
Using Cofactor Expansion**

**Theorem 1**

If A is a
quadratic matrix, then the a

*minor entry is expressed by M*_{i}*and is defined as a fixed submatrix determinant after the row-*_{ij}*i*and Column-*j*are crossed from A. Numbers (-1)^{i+j }M*is expressed by C*_{ij}*and is called the cofactor entry a*_{ij}*.*_{ij}**Example 1**

For example,

a

_{11}*'s minor entry is*_{ }
a

*cofactor is*_{11}
Likewise, a

*minor entry is*_{32}
a

*cofactor is*_{32}
A quick way to determine
whether the use of the "+" or "-" sign is the fact that the
use of a sign that connects C

*and M*_{ij}*is in the row-i and column-j of the arrangement.*_{ij}
For example, C

*= M*_{11}*, C*_{11}*=-M*_{21}*, C*_{21}*= -M*_{12}*, C*_{12}*= M*_{22}*, and etc.*_{22}
Calculate the determinant of the general 3 x 3 matrix
below, using a Cofactor Expansion

The determinant of this matrix is written as

What can be written into

Because statements in
parentheses are nothing but cofactors C

*, C*_{11}*, and C*_{12}*, we get*_{13}
Det(A)=a

*C*_{11}*+ a*_{11}*C*_{12}*+ a*_{12}*C*_{13}_{13}

_{}
Equation (**) shows that
the determinant of A can be calculated by multiplying the entries in the first
row A with the cofactors and increasing the product of the multiplication. This
method of calculing det (A) is called a Cofactor Expansion along the first row
A.

**Example 2.**

For example,

Calculate the determinant of matrix A with the Expansion method along the first row.

By rearranging the terms as in equation (**) in various ways, it will be possible for us to get formulas like the following:

Note that in each equation
all cofactor entries come from rows or from the same column. This equation is
called the Cofactor expansion expansion det (A).

Theorem:

The determinant of matrix
A, which is n x n, can be calculated by multiplying the entries in a row or
column with its cofactors and adding the results of multiplication produced, ie
for every 1 ≤ i ≤ n and 1 ≤ j ≤ n, then

and

**Example 3.**

Let A be the matrix in example 2. Calculate det (A) using a cofactor expansion along the first column.

Because it uses cofactor expansion along column-1, the formula used is,

Note: formula Cij = (-1)

^{i+j }M_{ij}
Cofactor expansion and row operations or column operations can sometimes be used together to provide an effective method for calculating determinants.

**Example 4.**

Calculate det (A) note that matrix A is,

Solution:

By adding the
corresponding multiplication from the second row to the rest of the line, we
get.

Add - (the value of row-

*i*column-1) second row to the other row to get the method as in the example calculation method of Gauss.hitungan Metode Gauss.
With cofactor expansion as long as the first column is obtained,

By adding the first row to the third row it will produce,

In cofactor expansion, we calculate det (A) by multiplying entries in rows or columns with their cofactors and adding the resulting multiplication results. It turns out that if we multiply the entries in a row with the corresponding cofactors from different rows, then the sum of these multiplication results is always equal to zero.

**Example 5**

Suppose we have a matrix A,

Review it

It is equal to zero, by forming a new A' matrix by replacing the third line with a copy of the lian from the first row. So,

Suppose C’

*, C'*_{31}*, and C’*_{32}*are cofactors of the entries in the third row of A '. Because the first two lines A and A are the same, and because of calculations C*_{33}*, C*_{31}*, C*_{32}*and C'*_{33}*and C*_{32}*only involve the second entries of the first row of A and A, then we get*_{33}
C

*=C’*_{31}*C*_{31}*=C’*_{32}*C*_{32}*=C’*_{33}_{33}

_{}
Because A'
has two identical lines then, conversely by calculating
(A') and cofactor expansion along the third line it will give,

So we get it,.

**Definition**

If
A is any n x n and C

*is a cofactor a*_{ij}*, then the matrix*_{ij}
Named a cofactor matrix A. Transpose matrix is called adjoin A and is stated with adj(A).

**Example 6.**

Suppose that you calculate the C

*cofactor and other cofactors and arrange them like a matrix*_{11}
C

*=(-1)*_{11}^{1+1}M_{11}=(-1)^{2}(a*a*_{22}*-aa*_{33}*a*_{32}*)=1((6x0)-(-4x3))=12*_{23}
C

*= 12 C*_{11}*= 6 C*_{12}*= -16*_{13}
C

*= 4 C*_{21}*= 2 C*_{22}*= 16*_{23}
C

*= 12 C*_{31}*= -10 C*_{32}*= 16*_{33}
So the cofactor matrix is

While Adjoin A is

###
**Calculating Determinants with Elemental Line Operations**

In this section we will show that the determinant of a matrix can be calculated by reducing the matrix in the form of row echelons. This method is important to avoid the length calculations involved in applying the determinant definition directly.

**Theorem 2**

If A is any quadratic matrix containing a row of zero numbers then det(A) = 0

Proof, because the elementary result marked with A contains one factor from each line A, then each marked elementary product contains a factor of the zero number row and consequently will also have zero. Because det (A) is the sum of all elementary times marked, we get det(A) = 0.

**Example 7.**

Calculate the determinant of the matrix below,

Solution:

We do not need further
reductions, because if the matrix of squares has two comparable lines, like the
first row and the second row of matrix A in

**E****xample 7**above, then the determination is zero.
The next theorem shows how
elementary row operations on the matrix will affect the determinant value.

**Theorem 3.**

Let A be any matrix n x n.

- If A' is a matrix that results when two lines A are exchanged, then det (A') = - det (A).
- If A' is a matrix that results when a single row A is multiplied by a constant k, then det (A) = k det (A).
- If A 'is a matrix that is generated when multiples of one line A are added to another line, then det (A') = det (A).

**Example 8.**

Calculate the determinant of the Matrix below,

Solution: By reducing A to the shape of the row echelon, then we get

**Theorem 4.**

If
A is a triangular matrix n x n, then det(A) is the product of entries in the
main diagonal, namely det(A) = a

*a*_{11}*...a*_{22}*.*_{33}SUBSCRIBE TO OUR NEWSLETTER

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